During the time when Orwell is writing animal farm, communism is on the rise and becoming a problem in quite a few writers' minds. Many of these writers presented their thoughts on the subject in the form of a satire. In other words mocking something in hope for change.
Although Orwell agreed with many of Marx's ideas, he did not agree with how the communist party was carrying out Marxism. In a way of expressing his dislike of communism he writes the novel Animal Farm in a plainer setting then that of an entire country, instead he chooses a simple farm as a setting. With the communist party portrayed as pigs, while the citizens of the U. S. S. R are cast as all of the other farm animals. To further this example of the allegory used in Animal Farm and its' similarities, the pigs have certain laws. In both worlds, the actual and the farm, two people have the same ideas concerning how a society would better run and be a more equal place.
On the farm, a pig named Major creates laws that every animal must abide by. In the real world Marx creates many ideals, which would then create a more equal environment for people. Just as what happens in the real world the pigs on the farm take these ideals and twist them around to benefit only the elite in a society. In the novel, the pigs take the laws of Major and turn them around so that they can do whatever they want and still keep the general public ignorant on how the leaders are abusing the law. Such as the law 'all animals are equal'(Orwell 6) the pigs took that law and added 'although some are more equal then others'(Orwell 8). This allows them to be a member of elite and it still can be within the law and no citizen objects to it.
When the society has a class of elite citizens it also contradicts the ideal of a utopia. Which is what Old Major and Marx were trying to do. In the course of Animal Farm and the beginnings of Marxist ideals a Utopia are good and could possibly work. Although, greed plays a major factor in perverting the ideas of a utopia. One of the reasons there can be no Utopia, is because people have a dreams and desires which often don't fit the Marx social pattern where everyone is supposedly equal. This happens on the farm, the pigs become so obsessed with their own desires that they conduct mass executions of those who came against Napoleon and animalism. Orwell described the executions vividly in this passage, '... there was a pile of corpses lying before Napoleons feet and the air was heavy with the smell of blood' (Orwell 89).
There is a food shortage and many are starved as a result of Napoleon's self-interest and greed. As this happens, they stay in a house and get drunk. This emphasis on the elite and how they have supreme rule also falls into how Orwell utilizes satire. Putting the world situation into the small perspective of farm animals helps to visualize the problem much easier on a smaller scale a parable of sorts. When looking at the animal's situation is seems ridiculous how they allowed pigs to rule their lives. A way of Orwell using satire is making the communists be viewed as pigs. Pigs are often seen as dirty, fat animals that are only used to be slaughter and used for meat. All other farm animals are not seen in such a bad light as the pigs. This aids in the depiction of the communists as the antagonists.
In using satire and allegory Orwell shows us a seemingly simple farm that stands for an entire nation and political party that is built on the words of one man. On the side of a satirical piece, he depicts the heads of the communist as self-serving and power hungry pigs. Everyone else that is concerned is showed as regular farm animals, which some are killed in mass executions and still others are worked to death or starved. On the other hand of Animal Farm, it's a use of allegory. The farm does stand for the U. S. S. R. while Old major represents Marx. Many other pigs resemble heads of the communist party. The story animal farm is true to how the communist party ruled, not to mention how they proved that Marxism failed everywhere it was instituted. This novel serves to represent communism in a light that is quite brutal concerning the effects and reasons behind it.