Global Mental Health

Global mental health is the international view on different aspects of mental health. It is the area of study, research, and practice for all people worldwide that places importance on improving mental health and accomplishing fairness in mental health. 

From Global mental health research article, I choose to review five articles conducted research from different countries. These are Culture and mental health in Nepal; The Cedar Project: exploring determinants of psychological  distress  among  young  Indigenous people  who  use  drugs  in  three  Canadian  cities;  Burden of depressive symptoms and non-alcohol substance abuse and their association with alcohol use and partner violence: a cross-sectional study in four sub-Saharan Africa countries; Parents’ use of  harsh  punishment  and  young children’s  behavior  and  achievement:  a  longitudinal study  of  Jamaican  children  with  conduct  problems;  and Correlates  of  expected  Mental  Health  intervention uptake  among  Filipino  domestic  workers  in  China.

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I chose this research topic to explain and teach about people\'s understanding of mental health from different places. I review this article not only to see how they do their research but also how nurses or another people can understand and get information from this research.  It also helps to know ways how to handle mental health who came from different places. As a future nurse, this research review will help us to identify mentally ill patients from a different country and how to manage their behavior from a different way of angle. 

Culture and mental health in Nepal

Culture and mental health in Nepal review examine available information in a low-income country. The review describes culture in relation to mental health in four areas: the first one is cultural determinants of mental illness; second beliefs and values that shape illness experience, including symptom experience and expression and help-seeking; third cultural knowledge of mental health and healing practices; and forth culturally informed mental health research and service design. 

The review identified different methods for understanding and lecturing mental health problems. The research is conducted from interviews, questionnaires. Case study, quantitative survey and observation. And used all the steps in the research process. The level of Evidence for the article is from well-designed case-control and cohort studies. (Level IV). 

‘’Terms used to study mental health and illness in both social science and clinical fields were included, as were transliterated Nepali words commonly referenced in the mental health literature’’ (Kohrt & Hruschka,2010).  This shows how this article is helpful for the nurses because it was conducted with the help of medical librarians and working in collaboration with patients, clinicians, policymakers and other knowledge users may help researchers find the appropriate vocabulary to translate their findings into practical applications. (Chase, Sapkota & Kirmayer, 2018).

Exploring determinants of psychological distress among young Indigenous people who use drugs in three Canadian cities.

The aim of the research is to study longitudinal risk and strengths-based factors associated with mental distress among young Indigenous people who use drugs. Mental health and wellbeing, including addressing the impacts of historical trauma and substance use among young people, has been identified as a key priority by Indigenous communities and leaders across Canada and globally (Purdie et al.,2010). 

To do this research, they use a quantitative method of Comparison of frequencies for potential confounders between males and females, Comparison of baseline frequencies for types of childhood maltreatment between males and females, mean raw psychological distress subscale scores for Cedar Project participants and transformed standardized area T-scores according to psychiatric outpatient norms. Stratified unadjusted and adjusted a coefficient estimates for each study variable on psychological distress scores among male and female participants. (Pearce et al, 2018). The level of Evidence for the article is from well-designed case-control and cohort studies. (Level IV). The strength of the study is the researcher describes the cause of health outcomes and evidence for distress in young indigenous people who use a drug.

‘’Lasting funding is needed for community-driven mental wellness interventions that address the root causes of interpersonal and systemic violence and offer opportunities to access Indigenous culture, traditions, languages, medicines, and spirituality’’ (Clark,2016). This research information helps the nurses to identify responses to mental wellness for Indigenous people for the health and well of Nations, communities, and families.

The Burden of depressive symptoms and non-alcohol substance abuse; and their association with alcohol use and partner violence: a cross-sectional study in four sub-Saharan Africa countries,

The aim of the study was to know the number of depressive symptoms whether alcohol use and non-alcohol use abuse and partner violence are associated. The research conducted a cross-sectional study at five sites in four countries: Nigeria (nurses), South Africa (teachers), Tanzania (teachers) and two sites in Uganda (rural and peri-urban residents). Participants were selected by simple random sampling from a sampling frame at each of the study sites.

The researcher enrolled 1415 respondents and of these 34.6% were male. (Bajunirwe et al 2018).  Most of the research is conducted in a health facility but in Africa, most of the time mentally ill people were not going to hospitals. They may be homeless, or they choose to be homeless no one will support them unless they have a family to look after them. 

The study in four countries in sub-Saharan Africa has shown that the prevalence of depressive symptoms is high. It is related to non-alcohol substance use and intimate partner violence. Screening for depression among those reporting non-alcohol substance use and intimate partner violence use among the younger persons will identify those who most need intervention.  Nurses will provide care for youth and adults across all practice settings regarding this research articles.

Parents’ use of harsh punishment and young children ’s behavior and achievement:  a longitudinal study of Jamaican conduct problems.

The evidence shows that parents harsh punishment leads young children to worse behavior over time. The aim of this research is because of harsh punishment and children\'s behavioral change to develop a parenting program to train parents and prevent violence against young children in Jamaica. In this study, it investigates the associations between harsh punishment and later child outcomes for young children with high levels of conduct problems. Harsh punishment is considered a causal risk factor not only for the development but also for the persistence of child behaviour problems (Jaffee et al.2012). 

Data for this paper were collected as part of a follow-up study of a previously conducted efficacy trial in 24 community preschools situated in disadvantaged areas of Kingston, Jamaica (Baker Henninghamet al.2012). the research is qualitative research and the level of evidence is from systematic reviews of descriptive and qualitative studies (Level V). The research is conducted from preschool, observation, parent and teacher report.

This study has several strengths. Parents reported on their use of harsh punishment; child behaviour was measured through multiple informants including independent observations, teacher and parent report, and school achievement, oral language, child attention and child impulse control were assessed by trained research personnel. Nurses must understand the problem and give teaching to parents and has to know a child\'s problem to give the best care for Jamaican children.

Correlates of expected eMental Health intervention uptake among Filipino domestic workers in China.

Transnational migrant populations face critical barriers to mental health service utilization that perpetuate. mental health disparities globally (Zimmerman et al. 2011). Providing mental health services to these diverse communities poses a serious global health challenge. Electronic mental health (eMental Health) interventions show promise as efficacious treatments that overcome key barriers to service utilization. (Ruzek & Yeager,2017).

The aims of this study is first to describe the proportion of Filipino domestic workers that would utilize eMental Health, second aim was to explore correlates of intent to utilize eMental Health, which included participant characteristics, working environment, living environment, previous mental health service use and attitudes about mental health services, stigma, technology use and accessibility, social network support, and current psychological distress.

It was a qualitative survey, over half (62.8%) the sample reported that they would utilize eMental Health and only 15% reported they would not use eMental Health. The majority of Filipino domestic workers in Macao who might need psychological services would use eMental Health. 

The majority of the study population had a smartphone and were able to connect to the Internet or Wi-Fi. The burden of mental health is a reality for this population, and scalable evidence-based intervention programs are needed to address this issue. (Hall et al 2018).  Nurses in this situation will know the problem and trying to solve it by communicating with the people. 

The best practice guideline or standard related to the global mental health 

It is providing evidence-based care to adults at risk for suicidal ideation and behaviors. Within the scope of this guideline, adults at risk may include any adult who may exhibit risk factors, with or without expressed suicidal intent. Nurses may interact with these clients in the community, long-term care facilities or in a hospital. (RNAO 2009),

From the review of Culture and mental health in Nepal, nurses have to provide care in keeping with the principles of cultural safety or cultural competence. For the Cedar Project: exploring determinants of psychological distress among young Indigenous people who use drugs in three Canadian cities, the nurse work with the client to minimize the feelings of shame, guilt and stigma that may be associated with suicidality, mental illness and addictions.

For the burden of depressive symptoms and non-alcohol substance abuse and their association with alcohol use and partner violence: a cross-sectional study in four sub-Saharan Africa countries, the nurse has to work toward establishing a therapeutic relationship with clients at risk for suicidal ideation and behavior.

For Parents’ use of harsh punishment and young children ’s behavior and achievement:  a longitudinal study of Jamaican children with conduct problems, nurses have to aware of current treatments to provide advocacy, referral, monitoring and health teaching interventions as appropriate for the family and children. Nurses have to work collaboratively with the client to understand his/her perspective and meet his/her needs for Correlates of expected Mental Health intervention uptake among Filipino domestic workers in China. (RNAO 2009)

Most of the research has clear statement of the purpose of the article, describe the method and materials of the research used, and the result of an experiment. Most of the article has enough data on the conclusion except on the research about the study in four countries in sub-Saharan. Africa. The conclusion doesn’t t have enough data described. 

In conclusion, this research data used to impact nursing practice to enable nurses and other health-care professionals to implement and sustain evidence-based mental health and addictions best practices across all care settings. (RNAO 2009). In Canada, there are many different peoples coming from different country and Nurses will give care to people facing mental health coming from different places. Therefore, understand mental health from the globe will make their work easy and this research article provide evidence-based care to mental health patients on the globe.



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