Niccolo Machiavelli biography
Niccolò Machiavelli was an Italian thinker, philosopher, writer, and politician. He held the post of Secretary of the Second Chancery in Florence, was responsible for the diplomatic relations of the republic, the author of military theoretical works. He acted as a supporter of a strong state power, which can be to strengthen with the use of any means, as expressed in the glorified work of The Prince, published in 1532.
Niccolò Machiavelli was born in 1469 in Florence, Italy. At the age of seven, Niccolo entered the school of Master Matteo, then he was sent to a local school. By the end of his studies, he knew Latin very well and had a course in Latin stylistics. The average wealth of the Machiavelli family did not allow Niccolo to enter the university, so his teachers were the ancient authors of Titus Livius, Tacitus, Cicero, Caesar, Virgil, Suetonius, Ovid, as well as Tibul and Catullus.
Niccolo Machiavelli's political biography dates from 1498, when he served as the secretary of the Second Chancery, in the same year he was elected secretary of the Dieci di Libertà e Pace where he was responsible for the military sphere and diplomacy. For over 14 years Machiavelli has executed a large number of government orders, traveled to various Italian states, as well as to Germany and France, made briefings and reports on current political issues, and conducted extensive correspondence. Familiarity with the legacy of the ancients, the experience of the state and diplomatic service became invaluable assistance in the subsequent creation of his social and political concepts.
In 1512, Machiavelli was forced to resign due to the arrival of Medici. As a republican, he was sent out of the city for a year, and next year he was arrested as the alleged participant in the plot. Machiavelli firmly defended his lack of involvement, eventually he was pardoned and sent to a small estate of Sant’Andrea. Here he writes a number of works devoted to political history, the theory of military affairs, philosophy. Thus, at the end of 1513 a treatise The Prince (published in 1532) was written, thanks to which the name of his author forever became part of world history. In this essay, Machiavelli argued that the goal justifies the means, but at the same time the "new ruler" must pursue goals not related to personal interests, but with the common good - in this case, the idea was to unite politically fragmented Italy into a strong state. It was the unlimited power of the ruler, in the opinion of the convinced patriot Machiavelli, that could be the only way to put an end to the troubles of his native country. For the sake of this good, the goal of justice and morality, the interests of citizens and the church can be neglected.
The works of Machiavelli were perceived by contemporaries with enthusiasm and enjoyed tremendous success. The Machiavellian system of politics was named in his honor. The most significant works of Machiavelli are The Art of War (1521), The Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livy (1531), and also The History of Florence (1532). In 1520, Pope Clement VII appointed Niccolo Machiavelli a historiographer and ordered him to write the history of Florence. In addition, Niccolo Machiavelli wrote works of art - short stories, songs, sonnets, poems, etc. In 1559, his writings were placed by the Catholic Church in the Index of Paul IV, which was the measure to stop publishing.
Machiavelli has made a lot of unsuccessful attempts to return to political activity. In the spring of 1527, his candidacy for the post of Chancellor of the Florentine Republic was rejected. Machiavelli died in 1527 in his native village. He was buried at the Church of Santa Croce in Florence.