Rhetoric is a subject of philology that implies the ways of convincing and influencing the audience by keeping in mind its peculiarities and specifics of the environment at the given moment. It is based on the technique of creating text, defining the structure that is the most suitable for a clear and reasoned verbalization of thoughts.
Modern rhetoric is the theory and skill of effective (expedient, influential, harmonic) speech. Its subject is the general patterns of speech behavior, operating in different cases of communication, areas of activity, and the practical possibilities of using them in order to create adequate expression. Speech efficiency is determined by the losses in the process of transferring all the types of speech: conceptual, estimation-based and emotional information from the talker to the listener. The influence of speech is highlighted by the ability to awaken the mind and feelings, to urge the someone to listen more favorably and then accept the thoughts which the orator will offer.
Classical rhetoric can be split into five sections. Invention, where the plan, intentions, ideas, and formulations of the future speech are developed. Disposition, in which the basic concepts of the declaration and the rules to define the usage of them are formulated. Elocution, which reveals how to express the topic of speech. Memoria, whose purpose is to help the speaker remember the meaning of the speech so that the loss of factual information, imagery, and details can be avoided. Action, which purpose is to prepare the talker for the performance mentally and physically.
This skill is one of the oldest arts and its origin dates back to ancient times. It was a means of protection and prosecution in the court. The most prominent theorists came from Greece, and practitioners - from Rome. Knowledge of this technique was a necessary preparation in ancient world. Greek citizen could defend themselves in court, but for the protection to be successful, they asked help from specialists whose craft was drafting speeches. The oratory also developed in Ancient Rome. The well-known ancient Greek speaker Aristotle distinguished three ways of persuasion: logical, emotional, and ethical.
Each way emphasized the speech so it would match the audience and their feelings. Thus, proper analysis of the listeners soon became an important part of preparing the speech and the path to choose when appealing to somebody.
After the age of Cicero, the rhetoric did not cease to exist. It became an art of preaching used by priests in churches. It also was one of the main three pillars that the education of that time relied on. As the development of other arts increased and the world entered the Renaissance period, the significance of rhetoric as an art of speech dropped heavily and it was largely forgotten for centuries.
At the turn of the 20th century, the rebirth of rhetorical thought was marked by the establishment of rhetoric faculty in educational institutions. Theoreticians generally agree that study of the subject was reborn to a large extent due to the renewed recognition of the weight of language and the ability to convince the increasingly saturated mass media of the XX century. Since the beginning of the domination of advertising and mass media, such as photography, telegraphy, cinema, radio and television, the role of rhetoric in people's lives has increased.
Starting as the semi-scholastic science of lavish speech (as it was interpreted in the Middle Ages), rhetoric becomes the science of effective communication in all possible life situations that require speech as the means of solving the issue or influencing one’s decision. The perception of rhetoric in such a way necessitates its study at all levels of education. Swedish professor Jose Luis Ramirez, sees rhetoric as the foundation of not only education but also civil society.
Rhetoric is the art of convincing, gaining favors and sowing dissent by the power of speech. Originating in the ancient democracies, it was an essential part of the society where the ability to speak the mind clearly and efficiently could unlock any doors. It also became a part of education program in the middle ages along with extensive usage by priests to make a bigger influence while preaching. Today the rhetoric is reborn. The invention of radio, television and Internet made way for efficient marketing strategies as well as political campaigns. Rhetoric is the pivotal aspect of efficient speech, therefore is valued greatly in the areas where success is based on how the listener evaluates the situating and accepts the idea that is being presented.