This personage is mentioned twice in this satirical essay. His real name is James Francis Edward Stuart, and he was the son of King James II. During the Glorious Revolution in 1688 King James II was dethroned and replaced by William III and Mary II. James Francis Edward Stuart was a Roman Catholic. He himself and his followers considered him as a king for almost 65 years. That is longer than any British monarch actually officially reigned. Unfortunately, Protestant English did not admit him as a genuine inheritor of the British throne; thence he got his nickname — the Pretender. Being a Catholic gave him huge respect and love from all Catholic population of Ireland. He became a symbol of revolution, change and great expectations for all of them. Jonathan Swift depicts him as an enemy of Great Britain and as a representative of papists — the main producers of children for the nation, and at the same time — the main danger. He says that they hope to give the power to their leader — James Francis Edward Stuart due to lack of Protestant voters that have moved abroad.
The Pretender in the Essays