The structure of education covers the following types: pre-school, general secondary, extra-curricular, vocational, higher, post-graduate, doctoral, self-education. According to them, the state has established the following illuminant levels: initial general, basic general, full secondary, vocational, basic higher, full higher education. But to make all those things run successfully, we need to have a special academic control. There are many definitions of educational management, but we want to catch your eye on the next one.
Educational management is a kind of social control, that supports the purposefulness and organization of pedagogical, innovative and supporting processes in the education system, together with obeying the general laws of social control. It has specific features, conditioned byways of setting and achieving socially significant goals in the specific conditions of the organized disciplinary process.
The disciplinary system can work in two modes: functioning and development. Accordingly, there are different types of this kind of supervision: the objects of them are the teaching and disciplinary processes that provide a system with program-methodological, material, technical, regulatory and legal conditions, the main goal of which is the effective use of the potential available in the disciplinary system, increasing its effectiveness.
What is the Meaning of Educational Management?
Education is the basis of intellectual, cultural, spiritual, social, economic development of society and the state. The goal of it is the comprehensive development of a person as the highest value of a society, the development of human talents, mental and physical abilities, the upbringing of high moral qualities, the formation of citizens capable of conscious social choice, the enrichment on this basis of the intellectual. The degree of the success of the educational management depends on the creative and cultural potential of the people, level of the people, providing the national economy with qualified specialists.
Public administration in education is a professional supervision activity that needs to be prepared. Management is an art; it is based on scientific concepts, theories, principles, methods, managerial technologies. The peculiarity of public administration in the field of education as a discipline is that in the process of studying the students master the scientific basis of control activity at the national and regional levels.
Types of Educational Management
There are four main types of the disciplinary ruling, as well as an identification of physical resource. Each type has its advantages and disadvantages. You can see the list of them below:
1. Centralized and Decentralized. Objective advantages of centralized supervision are obvious, because it ensures the unity of action of all entities and objects of management, in particular solving the main strategic problems of education development. It promotes the creation of disciplinary standards, preservation, and strengthening of the sense of cultural community of the entire population of the country. At the same time, such a system enhances authoritarian tendencies in academic control, restricts the initiative of pedagogical workers and local administration, complicates the search for new ways of developing education, imposes excessive monotony of forms and imposes 110 methods of managerial work, ignores or underestimates the peculiarities of regional specificity.
2. External and Internal. The use of that model in the disciplinary sphere opens a wide area for the development of local initiatives, facilitates the implementation of various pedagogical experiments, promotes the development of education taking into account local characteristics. Along with this, world experience shows that there are disadvantages of an external model. In practice, it often leads to excessive profound differences in education in different regions of the country, impedes the formation of national standards, increases the inequality in the financing of pedagogic, depending on the level of development of one or another region.
3. Authoritarian/Autocratic and Democratic. The transition to autocratic and democratic models of state-public education provides a combination in the process of managing bodies of different origin (state, public, self-government), which facilitates the gradual transition from centralized to decentralized management, decentralization of controlling processes. Bodies of public self-government, the public within the defined legal field influence the process of education management by the partnership.
4. Creative management. At the present stage, traditional approaches are changing in managerial activity. Views on processes in the disciplinary sphere from the dialectical methodology based on causal relationships are supplemented by a pluralistic approach according to which processes in the disciplinary sphere take place not only by objective laws but also on the synergetic methodology. This suggests that the regulation of dynamic processes in the studying sector requires both dialectic and synergetic methodology.
Management of education or educational management requires some ideational resources. The complexity and multiplicity of the sphere of education as a system and object of supervision, which are dynamic, open, self-guided, multi-parametric, does not allow managing in the managerial activity only accumulated experience and common sense, it requires the widespread use of scientific achievements. The main place is devoted to the development of system characteristics of public administration study, the theory of organization and control of education, technology for the development, adoption, and implementation of managerial decisions, which becomes a prerequisite for the transition from empiricism to scientific knowledge.
Sometimes, management of human resources is faced with the need of ideational resources. The issues of improving the quality of the education management system are posed by all states, and each of them tries to develop its path of development, taking into account national, religious, demographic peculiarities, etc.